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spisanie Detski i infektsiosni

Editor:
Central Medical Library ®,
MU - Sofia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Journal "Detski i infectsiosni bolesti" (Pediatric and Infectious Diseases)

ORIGINAL PAPERS

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Vol. 7, 2015

 

Vol. 7, 2015, № 2

INFECTIOUS DISEASES
ORIGINAL ARTICLES

D. Ilieva. Endemic cases of rabies in Bulgaria - Detski i infectsiosni bolesti, V. 7, 2015, No2, 43-48. (Abstract)

 

Vol. 7, 2015, № 1

CHILD DISEASES
ORIGINAL ARTICLES

A. Todorova and A. Tsvetkova. A study on asthma control and its impact on quality of life in childhood patients - Detski i infectsiosni bolesti, V. 7, 2015, No1, 3 - 8. (Abstract)

A. Zlatareva and G. Petrova. An analysis of expenditures for treatment of beta thalassemia in the period 2011-2014 - Detski i infectsiosni bolesti, V. 7, 2015, No1, 9 - 13. (Abstract)

CASE REPORTS

М. Karcheva, А. Kanova, B. Bonev, S. Mihaylova, G. Asseva and P. Petrov. Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Litchfield - Detski i infectsiosni bolesti, V. 7, 2015, No1, 14 - 17. (Abstract)


INFECTIOUS DISEASES
ORIGINAL ARTICLES

S. Angelova, Y. Mitova and V. Doycheva. Characteristics of the epidemic process in the outbreaks of nosocomial infections in Bulgaria for the period 2005-2012 - Detski i infectsiosni bolesti, V. 7, 2015, No1, 18 - 23. (Abstract)

S. Angelova, Y. Mitova and V. Doycheva. A study on the etiologic structure of outbreaks of nosocomial infections in bulgaria for the period 2005-2012 - Detski i infectsiosni bolesti, V. 7, 2015, No1, 24 - 33. (Abstract)

T. Petkova. Vaccine prophylaxis of typhoid fever – current state of the problem - Detski i infectsiosni bolesti, V. 7, 2015, No1, 34 - 39. (Abstract)

M. Baymakova. Clinical-laboratory parameters and algorythms in fever of unknown origin - Detski i infectsiosni bolesti, V. 7, 2015, No1, 40 - 55. (Abstract)

 

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CHILD DISEASES 2/2015

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

Endemic cases of rabies in Bulgaria - Detski i infectsiosni bolesti, V. 7, 2015, No2, 43-48.
D. Ilieva.
National Reference Laboratory Rabies and Monitoring of the Effectiveness of the Vaccination ND & RVMI – Sofia
Summary. During 2014 in Bulgaria with connection of rabies monitoring were detected endemic rabies cases. During this period were investigated 951 samples from 116 suspect animals and 835 shot animals (755 foxes and 80 jackals) from 22 areas with oral vaccination. Serologicaly were tested 511 blood samples from 479 foxes and 32 jackals. A seroconconversion level by the foxes were 37,4%. The biomarker tetracycline in the teeth of foxes ranged to 59,9%. The age of the target populations were determinated through to distinguish them from junior (J) and adult (A) animals. In regio Blagoevgrad during 2014 were detected 2 endemic rabies cases of foxes. The epidemiological situation in neighbour countries Serbia, Romania, some regions of Northern Greece and Turkey were complicated due to the large number of rabies cases among animals.
Key words: rabies, monitoring, oral vaccination, foxes
Address for correspondence: Ass. Prof. D. Ilieva, National Reference Laboratory Rabies and Monitoring of the Effectiveness of the Vaccination, ND & RVMI – Sofia; e-mail: emd@mail.orbitel.bg

 

 

CHILD DISEASES 1/2015

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

A study on asthma control and its impact on quality of life in childhood patients - Detski i infectsiosni bolesti, V. 7, 2015, No1, 3 - 8.
A. Todorova(1) and A. Tsvetkova(2)
(1) Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University – Varna
(2) Educational-Scientific Sector “Assistant Pharmacist”, Medical College – Varna
Summary.
Modern management of bronchial asthma is aimed at the establishment of control over disease. On many occasions control is insufficient, in the result of which the quality of life of patients is seriously reduced. The study aim is to assess the level of asthma control in childhood patients and to analyze its impact on the quality of life of patients. The Childhood Asthma Control Test (CACT) and the tool for assessment of quality of life, Child Attitude Toward Illness Scale (CATIS), were used in children classified in two age groups – 6-12 years and 13-16 years. The correlation between asthma control and quality of life is studied by regression analysis. With performed CACT and CATIS, we found a “partially controlled” asthma in the children aged 6-12 years and an “uncontrolled asthma” in the children aged 13-16 years as well as a “slightly positive” attitude to chronic disease in younger children and a “neutral” attitude in adult children. Moderate correlation dependence between asthma control and quality of life was found in the former group of patients and significant dependence – in the latter group of patients. Correlation between studied outcomes – asthma control and quality of life, is statistically significant in both groups of children (p < 0,05). The study observed poor control over asthma but no decreased rates of the quality of life of patients were found.
Key words: bronchial asthma, children, control, quality of life
Address for correspondence:
A. Todorova, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University – Varna е-mail: annitodorova@abv.bg

 

An analysis of expenditures for treatment of beta thalassemia in the period 2011-2014 - Detski i infectsiosni bolesti, V. 7, 2015, No1, 9 - 13.
A. Zlatareva(1) and G. Petrova(2).
1Medical Center Health BG EOOD
2 Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University – Sofia
Summary: Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze financing of pharmacotherapy of patients with beta-thalassemia in Bulgaria for the period 2011-2013 г. Materials and Methods: A financial, macroeconomic analysis of the cost of treatment of beta-thalassemia in Bulgaria for the period 2011-2014 was made. The average cost per patient, costs by regions, INN, and ATC group were calculated. The average cost for the entire group of patients with average costs by region were compared and deviations from the average statistical value were calculated. Results and Discussion: In 2011, due to changes in legislation, the National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) covered funding of rare diseases, which comprised 15 diagnoses, in 2012 – 16, and in 2013 (until August) – 23, including the treatment of beta thalassemia. The number of patients covered changes annually as follows: in 2011 – 219 patients, in 2012 – 223, and in 2013 – 247 patients. The cost of treating patients changes in upward direction: in 2011 – 5,132,600 BGN, in 2012 – 7,664,782 BGN, and in 2013 – 8,323,230 BGN. The average cost per patient with this diagnosis, paid by the Community Fund, is with significant deviations between different regions, as the highest value is recorded in Ruse and Varna. Conclusion: In Bulgaria, financing of pharmacotherapy of rare diseases follows the general principles of funding for all diseases and this creates the risk of underfunding of both the patients with rare diseases and the rest individuals since both the groups rely on the resources of NHIF. Statistically significant differences in the treatment of patients with rare diseases between different regions need a serious analysis of their medical arguments.
Key words: rare diseases, orphan drugs, beta thalassemia, treatment costs
Address for correspondence: Albena Zlatareva, MD; Medical Center "Health BG" EOOD; tel. 0359 887 988335

 

CASE REPORTS 1/2015

Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Litchfield - Detski i infectsiosni bolesti, V. 7, 2015, No1, 14 - 17.
М. Karcheva(1), А. Kanova(2), B. Bonev(2), S. Mihaylova(3), G. Asseva(4) and P. Petrov(4)

(1)Medical University – Pleven
(2)Regional Health Inspection – Pleven
(3)University Hospital – Pleven
(4)National Reference Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens, National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases – Sofia
Summary: The continuing interest to salmonellosis has its objective prerequisites – high morbidity, widespread carriers, diversity of serotypes, antimicrobial resistance, potential for outbreaks. Natural reservoirs of salmonellae are animals and birds, who develop clinically manifested salmonellosis or prolonged asymptomatic carrier state. A child with salmonellosis caused by a rare for Bulgaria Salmonella Litchfield susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics is presented. Clinically, the disease progressed as gastroenteritis and finished with full recovery after treatment with Nalidixic acid. The most probable source and reservoir of infection was a pet turtle. The demonstration of a rare for our country Salmonella serotype raises the issue of pet control, in particular the reptiles. Monitoring of the circulating in Bulgaria Salmonella serotypes, their antibacterial susceptibility and geographical distribution is important to clarify epidemiological, epizootological and clinical features of Salmonella infection.
Key words: salmonellosis, Salmonella Litchfield
Address for correspondence: М. Karcheva; Medical University – Pleven; e-mail: milena_karcheva@abv.bg

 

INFECTIOUS DISEASES 1/2015

ORIGINAL PAPERS

Characteristics of the epidemic process in the outbreaks of nosocomial infections in Bulgaria for the period 2005-2012 - Detski i infectsiosni bolesti, V. 7, 2015, No1, 18 - 23.
S. Angelova, Y. Mitova and V. Doycheva

Department of Epidemiology, Medical University – Sofia
Summary: Outbreaks of nosocomial infections (NI) occur relatively infrequently, but can be accompanied by high morbidity and mortality and lead to serious medical, social and economic consequences. According to various authors, 2% to 10% of all NI are registered within the outbreaks. Risk wards where outbreaks of NI occur are: wards for newborns and premature infants, maternity wards and intensive care units. The purpose of this study is to identify the trends and characteristics of the epidemic outbreaks of NI in Bulgaria for the period 2005-2012. Data used for the purpose of this study is taken from: the automated management system for nosocomial infections in Bulgaria; official reports from epidemiological studies of outbreaks of NI in Bulgaria for the period 2005-2012, as well as the annual analyses of NI in Bulgaria carried out by the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (NCIPD) and the Ministry of Health, also published in the NCIPD journals. When interpreting the results, the following methods were applied: documentary method, complex epidemiological method and statistical method. For the period 2005-2012, there were 93 outbreaks with total 1128 persons affected. The share of registered NI (in the context of outbreaks) is 0.71% out of all 159,443 NI in Bulgaria. The average lethality rate caused by NI during outbreaks is 2%. Approximately 91% of the deaths were registered in outbreaks in risky wards and are caused by opportunistic bacteria. Significant share of the outbreaks were recorded in infant homes – 47.3%. Out of all hospital wards, at highest risk for the occurrence of outbreaks of NI are the intensive care units and wards for the treatment of newborns. 20.4% of all outbreaks of NI in the country are registered there. Typical for the outbreaks in infant homes and psychiatric wards is that the outbreaks are caused mainly by classical pathogens and those in risk wards - by opportunistic bacteria.
Key words: nosocomial infections, outbreaks of nosocomial infections, medical facilities, risk wards, etiological structure, morbidity, lethality
Address for correspondence: S. Angelova; Department of Epidemiology, Medical University – Sofia; e-mail: a.svetla.angelova@abv.bg

 

A study on the etiologic structure of outbreaks of nosocomial infections in bulgaria for the period 2005-2012 - Detski i infectsiosni bolesti, V. 7, 2015, No1, 24 - 33.
S. Angelova, Y. Mitova and V. Doycheva
Department “Epidemiology”, Medical University – Sofia
Summary:
In the diagnosis of nosocomial outbreak of infection, rapid and accurate identification of the infectious agent is of crucial importance to eradicate it and to implement appropriate preventive measures, terminating further spreading of the pathogen. According to various authors, 2% to 10% of all NI are registered within the outbreaks. The purpose of this study is to identify trends in the etiological structure of outbreaks from NI in Bulgaria. Data used for the purpose of this study is taken from: the automated management system for nosocomial infections in Bulgaria; official reports from epidemiological studies of outbreaks of NI in Bulgaria for the period 2005-2012, as well as the annual analyses of NI in Bulgaria carried out by the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (NCIPD) and the Ministry of Health, also published in the NCIPD journals. When interpreting the results, the following methods were applied: documentary method, complex epidemiological method and statistical method. The largest share in the etiological structure of outbreaks from NI in Bulgaria has: Gram (–) bacteria family Enterobactriaceae – 38.7%, and viruses – 37.6%. The leading cause is E. coli, isolated in 16.1% of all outbreaks of NI, followed by VZV – 12,9%. Outbreaks in the orphanage are most often caused by VZV – 27.3%. Typical for therapeutic wards are the nosocomial outbreaks caused by HCV. Epidemic strains isolated in risk wards refer mainly to opportunistic bacteria. E. coli has the highest share in the etiological structure of outbreaks of NI in risk wards – 26.3%, followed by K. pneumoniae – 21.1%.
Key words: nosocomial infections, outbreaks of nosocomial infections, medical facilities, risk wards, etiological structure, etiological agent
Address for correspondence: S. Angelova; Department of Epidemiology, Medical University – Sofia; e-mail: a.svetla.angelova@abv.bg

 

Vaccine prophylaxis of typhoid fever – current state of the problem - Detski i infectsiosni bolesti, V. 7, 2015, No1, 34 - 39.
T. Petkova

Department of Infectious Diseases, Epidemiology, Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Medical University – Pleven
Summary:
Typhoid fever is an acute generalized infection, which severity and clinical manifestations may vary within wide limits. In Bulgaria and in most of the developed countries the incidence of typhoid fever is very low and sporadic. In developing areas of Asia, Africa and Latin America, the disease continues to be a public health problem. The healthcare experience shows that success in the measures against typhoid fever can be achieved with the introduction of prevention programs, a part of which is vaccine prevention. The aim of this review is to present international papers, which represent the positions of the leading experts of WHO about vaccine prophylaxis of typhoid fever. Newsletters of the WHO and other literary sources are used to provide current guidelines for immunization. Application of generally accepted preventive measures, together with the immunization will provide modern standards for the management of the disease.
Key words: typhoid fever, Salmonella Typhi, vaccines
Address for correspondence:
T. Petkova; Department of Infectious Diseases, Epidemiology, Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Medical University – Pleven; tel.: +359 64 884 174; e-mail: tanja_1973@abv.bg

 

Clinical-laboratory parameters and algorythms in fever of unknown origin - Detski i infectsiosni bolesti, V. 7, 2015, No1, 40 - 55.
M. Baymakova
Department of Infectious Diseases, Military Medical Academy – Sofia
Summary:
Fever of unknown origin is a clinical problem engaging the entire medical community because of its multivarious clinical presentations and a vast list of etiological reasons. Persistent unclear fever requires a systemic approach based on the fundamentals of medicine such as detailed history and comprehensive physical examination. The laboratory investigations begin with the required minimum parameters, followed by specific tests based on the epidemiological data and potential diagnostic clues. To elucidate this problem we need a multidisciplinary, complex analysis, individual approach and thinking about the patient.
Key words: fever of unknown origin, diagnosis, protocol
Address for correspondence:
M. Baymakova; Department of Infectious Diseases, Military Medical Academy – Sofia; e-mail: dr.baymakova@gmail.com

 

Last update: 14.06.2016

 

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