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Reviews 2009


Ch. Odisseev¹, T. Dimitrova² and P. Georguiev²

1Department of virology, National center for infectious and parasitic diseases – Sofia
2Chair of epidemiology, Medical faculty – Sofia

Summary: Mumps is a serious medical, social and economic problem. The only effective approach against the infection is the specific prophylaxis with living mumps vaccine. There are several vaccines worldwide. Their application is favored by combination of measles and rubella vaccines. They are characterized by a good tolerability, immunogenicity and efficacy. Because of their habitual and well-done application, in several countries the incidence is markedly decreased. Despite of obtained success, unresolved problems are still pending. One of them is meningeal reactions seen in all vaccines. Because of their rarity, mild symptoms, lack of persistent damages, WHO accepts them as a minimal risk in comparison with damages inflicted by natural infection. This is a general review of the present status of the vaccine prophylaxis of this infection worldwide.

Key words: mumps, mumps vaccine, reactogenicity, immunogenicity, efficacy, adverse reactions, vaccine strategy

Address for correspondence:
Ass. Prof. Todorka Dimitrowa, MD, Chair of Epidemiology, MU – Sofia, SBALAG “Maichin dom” 2, Zdrave str, Bg – 1431, Sofia, Bulgaria, tel.: 9520304, e-mail: tod.dimitrova@mail.bg
Zh. Boneva1, M. Boyanov2, P. Jovchevski3, Y. Assyov4 and К. Stanoeva4

1Department of Endocrinology – Medical Institute – Ministry of Interior, Sofia
2Clinic of of Endocrinology – University Hospital „Alexandrovska”, Sofia
3Department of Nephrology, Medical Institute – Ministry of Interior, Sofia
4Student, Medical University – Sofia

Summary: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder characterized by snoring, partial or complete cessation of breathing during sleep, reduction in blood oxygen levels, severe sleep fragmentation and excessive day-time sleepiness. It is associated with cardiovascular conditions, causing hypertension, heart disease, and stroke and may lead to significant impairments in quality of life. OSA is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Sleep fragmentation and deprivation and hypoxemia are thought to play a role in glucose intolerance. Patients with moderate to severe sleep apnea are treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Recent studies have shown that treating sleep apnea with CPAP can improve glycemic control and blood pressure.

Key words: obstructive sleep apnea, CPAP therapy, type 2 diabetes

Address for correspondence:
Zhivka Boneva, MD, Medical Institute – Ministry of Interior, Sofia, Department of Endocrinology,
79 Gen. Skobelev blvd., Bg – 1606 Sofia, tel.: 9821 /в. 351, факс: 9814594, e-mail: zhbonevaa@abv.bg
B. Avramova1, P. Dimova2, Dr. Bobev1and V. Bozhinova2

1Specialized Hospital for Children with Oncohaematological Diseases – Sofia
2Clinic of Child Neurology, Sv. Naum University Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry – Sofia

Summary: Cell therapy is one of the most modern directions in today medical practice with a great potential for development and improvement. In recent years, the scope of its use in various diseases is rapidly expanding. Especially attractive is the use of different stem cell types in the treatment of several serious malignant and benign disorders, including neurological, after exhaustion of the options of their conventional therapy. For the success of such treatment, it is important to extensively study the biology of stem cells, their types and potency, as well as their possibility to transdifferentiate in different from the original cell lines. In the last decade, experimental studies on the efficacy of transplantations of embryonic and adult stem cells in severe neurological disorders in children and adults are worldwide going on. The results of these studies convincingly demonstrate that best results could be expected from transplantations of embryonic stem cells or adult progenitors of the brain cells.

Key words: transplantation, stem cells, haematopoietic, neurological diseases

Address for correspondence:
Petya St. Dimova, MD, Clinic of Child Neurology, USBALNP “Sv. Naoum” – 4 km, 1 Dr. L. Roussev str., Bg – 1113 Sofia,
tel.: 97-02/232, e-mail: pdimova@cablebg.net
E. Karaslavova

Department of Social Medicine, Medical University – Plovdiv

Summary: All organisms are continuously exposed to radiation from either natural or synthetic sources. The psychological and biological effects of radiation have been analysed. Generally, the toxicity caused by radiation is directly related to the quantity of energy deposited into a living organism and the subsequent disruption of metabolic and reproductive pathways. A review of radiation incidents over the past 50 years has been made.

Key words: ionizing radiation, biological effects, acute radiation syndrome, incidents

Address for correspondence:
Emilia Georgieva Karaslavova, MD, Department of Social Medicine, Section “Medicine of Disastrous Situations”,
Medical University, 15A Vasil Aprilov blvd., 4000 Plovdiv, GSM: 0896/651-274, e-mail: e_karaslavova@yahoo.com

T. Popov, L. Surchev and L. Zhelev

Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Medical University – Sofia

Summary: Hydrocephalus is a diverse pathological process and a common problem in clinical practice. Investigating its pathogenetic mechanisms is a necessary condition for defining future guidelines for improving its management. The aim of this review is to present and summarize the published results from the most renowned model simulating hydrocephalus – the kaolin rat model. By injecting kaolin solution in the cerebellomedullar cistern of the animal, the connection between the ventricular and the subarachnoid spaces is blocked in the area of the Magendie and Lushka foramens. We review the alterations in the parameters of the liquor dynamics, cerebral blood flow, metabolite levels as well as the morphologic changes in the brain parenchyma and the ventricular system. At different stages, the model develops consecutively the characteristics of an acute non-communicating hydrocephalus and afterwards those of a normal pressure hydrocephalus.

Keywords: hydrocephalus, kaolin, animal model

Address for correspondence:
Assoc. Prof. L. Sourchev, DSc, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Medical University – Sofia,
Tel.: +359 2 9172605, GSM: +359 899599654, e-mail: surchev@medfac.acad.bg

M. Galabova and I. Galabov

First Pediatric Clinic of Pulmology, Allergology and Neurology, University Hospital “Sv. Marina”

Summary: In this review, the topic of importance and prevalence of allergic rhinitis in the population is revealed. The morbidity of allergic rhinitis in the different regions of the world is viewed – particularly in the highly developed industrial countries. The most often clinical symptoms are described and the importance of the disease for impairment of the night sleep and the social life of patients, the school performance and work productivity is pointed out. A connection between bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis is made, suggesting the concept of “one airway, one disease”. The most important laboratory tests for the diagnosis and the most acceptable treatment guidelines depending on the severity of the allergic rhinitis are listed.

Key words: allergic rhinitis, diagnosis, laboratory, treatment

Address for correspondence:
Martina Galabova, MD, First Pediatric Clinic of Pulmology, Allergology and Neurology,
University Hospital “Sv. Marina”, 1 Hristo Smirnenski str., 9010 Varna


V. Mincheva

Clinic of Cardiology and Lipidology
National Multiprofile Transport Hospital – Sofia

Summary: Calcific Aortic Stenosis is the most prevalent heart disease in developed countries after arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease. The disease has a chronic progresive course with a latent period of asymptomatic course. The assessment of this valve lesion includes clinical and instrumental methods that determine the indications for therapeutic behaviour – aortic valve prosthesis or balloon valvuloplasty.

Key words: aortic valve stenosis, echocardiographic assessment, indications for intervention

Address for correspondence:
Assoc. Prof. Dr. V. Mincheva, Clinic of Cardiology and Lipidology, National Multiprofile Transport Hospital,
104 Maria-Luisa Boulevard, 1233 Sofia, tel.: 00359 2 932 39 01, e-mail: vmmincheva@yahoo.co.uk

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