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Reviews 2/2014






L. Beshev1, B. Tsankov2 and B. Ignatov2
1Vascular Surgery Ward, UMBAL – Pleven, Medical University – Pleven
2Vascular Surgery Cycle, Medical University – Pleven

Summary. The peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a widespread and socially significant vascular disease. It‘s progressive development lead to critical limb ischemia(CLI), which in turn may lead to heavy and permanent disability of the patients. The unsatisfactory results in the treatment of patients in the advanced stage of the disease,underline the search and development of new methods and strategies of treatment. One such promising, easy to master, and safe method, which is already widely used in the developed western European countries and the USA is the auto transplantation of bone marrow derived stem cells. The therapy is performed using the patient‘s own biological material, which prevents any possible immunological conflicts, and takes about 20 minutes. The good results from clinical trials carried out in Germany, the Netherlands, USA and some Asian countries, provide a solid ground to promote this new and promising procedure.
Key words: critical limb ischaemia, stem cells, treatment
Address for correspondence: Lyubomir Beshev, MD, Vascular Surgery Ward, UMBAL “Georgi Stranski”, 8A Georgi Kochev Bvl., Bg – 5800 Pleven, tel.: 064/886359, e-mail: lyubomir_beshev@yahoo.com

I. Ivanova1, B. Atanasova2 and K. Tzachev2
1Department of clinical laboratory, University Hospital “St.Ivan Rislki”, Sofia
2Department of clinical laboratory and clinical immunology, University Hospital “Alexandrovska”,
Medical University – Sofia

Summary. Copper is an essential trace element for humans and animals. It plays crucial role as an integrative component of many copper metalloenzymes and participates in various physiological processes: pigmentation, erythropoesis, gene expression, oxidative stress, regulation of glucose balance. Clinical disorders of copper homeostasis are associated with deficiency or overload. Phenotypically these impairments have diverse expression. In recent medical practice the need for reliable laboratory markers that would allow effective evaluation of copper status in human body with high sensitivity to detect even small changes in body copper levels is boldly underlined. This review presents the main aspects in copper physiology, clinical disorders in copper metabolism and key laboratory biomarkers for assessment of copper status
Key words: copper metabolism, copper deficiency, copper overload, biomarkers of copper status, Menkes disease, Wilson’s disease, Alzhеimer’s disease
Address for correspondence: I. Ivanova, Department of clinical laboratory, University Hospital “Sv. Ivan Rislki”, 15 Akad. I. E. Geshov, bvl., Bg – 1431 Sofia, tel.: 02/8524883, +359 877721478, e-mail: irena.dimirtova@gmail.com

I. Bogoeva
Bulgarian Food Safety Agency, Risk Assessment Centre
Summary. Improper use of plant protection products in modern agriculture is a major source of environmental pollution and food commodities with pesticide residues. This is a major factor in damaging the ecosystems and their inhabitants and also – the human health as an integral part of the nature. Pathways of these substances in the body are through direct contact or through contaminated food uptake. The presence of a number of pesticides in the human body can cause irreversible consequences and violations in its functioning, and at higher doses can lead to a lethal effect. The most vulnerable groups are people, working in the production of pesticides, their users and also – children. There is a harmonized European legislation to establish maximum levels for pesticide residues in food of plant and animal origin to all Member States. The aim of this study is to draw attention to the irreversible harmful effects on the environment and human health, which pesticides could cause, and to call for reasonable use.
Key words: persticides, injurious human health
Address for correspondence: I. Bogoeva, Bulgarian Food Safety Agency, Risk Assessment Centre, 136 Tzar Boris III bvl., Bg – 1618 Sofia, tel.: 359 882 469 414, e-mail: iren.bog@abv.bg; irena.bogoeva@nvms.government.bg

A. Vatkova
Department of Nevrology, Phsihyatry, Physioterapy and Rehabilitation, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Medical faculty, Sofia University "Sv. Kliment Ohridsky"
Summary. The development of the human society has been always connected to the development of the technology and science up to the modern high technologies. The revolution in science and technology marks a new stage in the development of human society – this of the industrial society. Today, we say we are living in a post industrial society, where new technologies are developing at lightning speed. This is inextricably bound up with the working process and different factors determining it. Parallel to this process, the human awareness evolved in connection to relation between work process, work conditions and human health. Nowadays, on the background of the running globalization, the concentration of the workforce in megapolicies, computerization, migration and hyper information are fact. In this article, on the base of number of scientific researches, we talk about health determinants of the occupational diseases in their dynamics, reflecting the level of the science and technology development and the social and cultural challenges.
Key words: health determinants, modern society, globalization, occupational diseases, occupational health, social factors, level of education, work burden
Address for correspondence: Albena Vatkova, Medical faculty, SU "Sv. Kliment Ohridsky", 1 Kozyak str., Bg – 1407 Sofia, e-mail: hariomabby@abv.bg

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